Common Causes of Vertigo or Dizziness. Triggers To Avoid

Many believe that the common causes of vertigo or dizziness are the same. Do the terms dizziness, light-headedness, disequilibrium or unsteadiness and vertigo mean the same thing?

These words are not synonyms, and clarification is important if you are to adequately describe each to the doctor as each one requires a different treatment. More important is identifying the triggers.

This article takes a deep dive into presenting the distinctions and symptoms from reviewed literature and discusses some triggers.

General Causes

Common causes of Vertigo or Dizziness
Certain Medication may affect Balance

The mechanism of balance in the body is complex. We generally do not appreciate it until something goes wrong. There can be several reasons why it may not be functioning as it should. Some general causes include:

  • Normal aging process
  • Neurological disorders.
  • Cardiovascular reasons such as changes in blood pressure.
  • Ear-related issues (sometimes from injury or sometimes from birth).
  • Head injuries or trauma.
  • Use of certain medication.
  • Pregnancy and other hormonal changes.

Seek immediate medical care if you experience recurrent, severe, sudden, or prolonged and unexplained dizziness, vertigo, or dis-equilibrium.

To do this requires understanding the differences between each of these terminologies we so frequently throw around.

So…..What Are the Differences?

To better understand the differences, you will need a quick review of the process of balance in the body. Refer to a previous article in MetamorphosisHub – Poor Balance in Seniors – Why Oh Why?

The body maintains its balance with sensory information from three systems – vision, muscles and joints, and the vestibular (inner ear).

Information coming in from these three systems is processed by the brain. Feedback is sent to the eyes to help maintain steady vision and to the muscles to help maintain posture and balance.

A healthy vestibular system supplies reliable information about spatial orientation. When the vestibular system malfunctions or is damaged, it is unable to resolve moments of sensory conflict,

Common causes of Vertigo or Dizziness
Feeling Lightheaded or Faint

Dizziness, vertigo, and disequilibrium are common symptoms reported by older adults during visits to their doctor. Many people often use the word dizziness to describe any sensation that makes them feel off balance and faint.

Confusing feelings one might have, and call dizziness are:

  • Unsteadiness (a sense of imbalance, falling over or staggering when standing or walking) – dis-equilibrium.
  • Feeling light-headed or a sensation of being faint.
  • Feeling of uneasiness that can occur when one suffers from a cold or flu
  • Dizzy feeling caused by breathing too rapidly (hyperventilation), by fatigue or anxiety

Vertigo is different.

In this case, you get a false sensation that you or your surrounding is spinning, moving or twirling around when you are not actually moving.

All three symptoms are linked by a common cause – a malfunction in the vestibular system.

Dizziness

This is a general term that describes light-headedness, floating or fainting sensation, or unsteadiness.  It can be a primary sign of a vestibular disorder in addition to a wide range of cardiovascular, neurological, metabolic, vision, and psychological problems.

When you stand for a long period, blood can pool (due to gravity) in the legs which can deprive the brain of a level of oxygen and nutrients.

Because the brain is in control of all movements, it will attempt to correct this by stopping gravity from continuing to pull blood to the legs.

The only way it can do this is to cause you to fall so that you are in a horizontal position.

Dizziness can also occur when getting up fast from lying down. Because the blood is unable to quickly reach the brain from the pumping of the heart, the brain is briefly deprived of necessary oxygen.

Common Causes of Vertigo or Dizziness
Vertigo Causes the Perception of Spinning Around You

Vertigo

This is the perception of movement, either of self or of surrounding objects. With vertigo, the world around you keeps moving even when a person is still.

It is a truly uncomfortable feeling and can be debilitating. It is generally short but has an extraordinarily strong perception.

I have personally experienced this and can honestly say that the suddenness of the onset makes the perception all the more scary. The first time it happened to me, I could not comprehend the sensation and I screamed for help.

Vertigo is also called BBPV (Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo). The small pieces of bone-like calcium in the balance center of the inner ear help us maintain normal balance.

When small pieces break away, they float into the small canals of the inner ear. Moving the head in different directions causes these dislodge pieces to affect balance and create the sensation that the room is spinning

Frequent episodes of vertigo are usually a sign of a vestibular dysfunction, especially when triggered by changes in the positioning of the head.

Disequilibrium or Imbalance

This refers to unsteadiness, imbalance, or loss of equilibrium that is often accompanied by spatial disorientation.

What Type of Problems Cause Symptoms?

Problems caused may or may not be brought on by the vestibular system.

Problems Not Caused by the Vestibular System

Dizziness can be linked to a wide array of problems and is commonly linked to blood-flow irregularities from cardiovascular problems.

Some common non-vestibular causes of dizziness in older people (Vestibular Disorders Association VEDA,2020) are listed below:

  • AneurysmStress
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Dehydration
  • Severe degenerative spinal arthritis
  • Heart attack
  • Hyperventilation
  • Certain medications,
  • Nervous-system disorders
  • Blood pooling in the feet
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Stress, tension, or fatigue
  • Vision disturbances
Common Causes of Vertigo or Dizziness

Problems Caused by the Vestibular System

Vestibular dysfunction commonly caused by head injury, aging, and viral infection may initiate symptoms of dizziness or vertigo.

Genetic and environmental factors, may also cause or contribute to vestibular disorders resulting in dizziness.

Vertigo is mostly caused by inner ear problems that affect balance.

There are several causes of dizziness, vertigo or disequilibrium related to vestibular system dysfunction. Some examples are listed below:

    • Benign tumor growing on the vestibulo-cochlear nerve.
    • Autoimmune inner ear disease
    • Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)
    • Labyrinthitis – inflammation caused by a viral infection
    • Middle ear pressure changes due to colds or allergies,
    • Migraine associated vertigo
    • Bacterial infection of the middle ear
    • Mal de débarquement
    • Ménière’s disease
    • Meningitis – bacterial infection of the brain covering that may spread to the inner ear.

Common Causes Dos and Don’ts to Ease and Prevent Episodes of Dizziness

Recommendations from the National Health System (NHS uk) 2017 and Mayo Clinic (2020):

DO THIS

  • Lie down until dizziness passes, then get up slowly.Lying Down
  • Be careful while lying down as you may experience nausea
  • If you must walk, move slowly and carefully
  • Limit movement of the head
  • Loosen tight clothing
  • Get plenty of rest
  • Drink plenty of fluids especially water
  • Avoid coffee, cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs

DON’T DO THIS

  • Bend down suddenly
  • Get up suddenly after sitting or lying down
  • Do anything dangerous while you are dizzy – driving, climbing a ladder, or using machinery
  • Lie totally flat if you feel that things are spinning.

Dos and Don’ts to Ease and Prevent Episodes of Vertigo

Recommendations from the National Health System (NHS uk) 2020 include the following:

DO THIS

  • Sit down immediately you perceive the spinning sensationMan Sitting Down
  • Move your head carefully during an episode and during all daily activities
  • Lie still in a quiet, dark room to reduce the spinning sensation
  • Try to relax – anxiety worsens it
  • Sleep with your head slightly raised on two or more pillows
  • Turn on the lights if you get up at night to go to the washroom
  • Get out of bed slowly and sit on the edge of the bed for a minute before standing up
  • Use a walking stick if you are at risk of falling

DON’T DO THIS

  • Bend over to pick things up – lower yourself by squatting instead
  • Stretch your neck such as when reaching up to a high shelf

Triggers of Vestibular Induced Symptoms

Triggers are the stimuli that can “call into action” or aggravate vestibular symptoms. Although they vary from person to person some general triggers include abrupt standing, and sudden movements of the head.

It is beneficial to track your triggers and learn to avoid them. “How do you do this?” you ask? By retracing your immediate activities and the nature of your environment before the episode. Avoidance is key.

In Conclusion

While this article has addressed the common causes of vertigo or dizziness, as always, seek medical advice on treatment as there may be additional underlying causes.

Do you have some personal or additional insight into the causes of vertigo or dizziness? Please share them in the comment box below and I will surely respond to you.

Selected References

  1. NHS (2017) Vertigo https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vertigo/
  2. NHS (2020) Dizziness https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/dizziness/.
  3. Vestibular Disorders Association VEDA (2020) Causes of Dizziness https://vestibular.org/about-vestibular-disorders/causes-dizziness
  4. Mayo Clinic (2020) Dizziness https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dizziness/symptoms-causes/syc-20371787

16 thoughts on “Common Causes of Vertigo or Dizziness. Triggers To Avoid”

  1. Hi Ceci,

    I am so glad that I found your post about vertigo. My sister suffers from a head injury or trauma years ago. So she will experience massive headaches once in a while. When it happens, she’d stop what she’s doing and just lay down and take some medicines if the spinning has stopped.
    I appreciate your tips of what we should do and should not do if we experience vertigo. It’s very helpful. I will make sure to share it with my sister.

    Reply
    • Thanks Ferra. Vertigo can really be quite frightening the first time one experiences it and I can only empathize with your sister since I occassionally have it too. Knowing what to do when it happens definitely helps. I hope your sister will also find value in the article. Thanks for sharing with her.
      Ceci

      Reply
  2. Hi Ceci,

    Thanks for putting this article together on the causes of dizziness and vertigo.

    I’ve been experiencing these symptoms lately, and after reading your article, I think I have a better idea of what some of the causes might be.

    I don’t sleep enough, drink too much coffee, and sometimes get up suddenly.

    I’ve heard that vitamin B12 and ginkgo biloba might be able to help with these issues as we get older. Is there any truth to these urban myths at all?

    Thanks

    Reply
    • Hello Michael,
      Glad the article provided you with value. It seems that you have already identified your triggers and I would suggest that you make changes in these areas. About the use of Vitamin B12 and Gingko biloba, I will certainly look into whether there is any truth to these myths as my aim is to constantly provide articles that address the needs of my readers. Stay tuned!

      Ceci

      Reply
  3. Hi Ceci,
    Great article on the Common Causes Of Vertigo Or Dizziness. I think u have pretty much nailed it, and this is an exhaustive account of vertigo. I went through the references of NHS and there is so much infiormation I found there, that i didnt know. Can u imagine, i understood the difference between vertigo and dizziness for the first time.
    Thanks Ceci.
    Aps

    Reply
    • Hello Aparna,
      I am always happy to read that my readers find value in my articles – and yes, there is also lots of additional information about it on the NHS site. Happy reading!
      Ceci

      Reply
  4. Hey Ceci, thanks for sharing this post. I never knew there were so many different reasons or even sensations to what we generally term “dizziness”. I can see how anyone, including my self can be confused about the right terms and of course be unable to articulate the right symptoms to a doctor if you don’t isolate your symptoms. My daughter complains of dizziness frequently and I am sharing this article with her to figure out what really might be going on and also what to do. I am glad you shared this very useful post.

    Reply
    • Thank you Momsiedearest! I am really glad that you found value in the article – which is why I write them! I suggest that you get your daughter to see a doctor pretty soon sif she suffers from dizziness so frequently as that is not normal. Stop bythe website again soon for lots of new articles.
      Ceci

      Reply
  5. This is a thorough post. I work with people with brain injury, and they do experience headaches and migraine occasionally. I will share these tips with them.
    I must say these tips will come in handy with all individuals as well in managing our day to day living.
    Thanks for sharing.

    Reply
    • Thanks for the comment. Please share the articles and encourage those folks to visit the website frequently as new articles are coming out often
      Ceci

      Reply
  6. Great. Thank for the information.
    My aged mother has been complaining of dizziness for a few months now, and when I ask her to explain what she is experiencing, she has difficulty doing so. She is reluctant to go to the doctor and more reluctant to take prescription medicines.
    I’ll send her a copy of this article in the hopes that it will help her clarify, in her own mind, exactly what she is experiencing. Once we are sure about the symptoms, then we will be better able to offer solutions that will either reduce or eliminate the symptoms.
    If we need more Info, I’ll be in touch again.
    Many thanks.

    Reply
    • Yes, I think it’s a great idea that you are sending your mother this article. Sometimes hearing the same things you tell her from an independent source can make a big difference. Please encourage her to see the doctor thereafter to ensure that she gets appropriate treatment.
      Ceci

      Reply
  7. Hey Ceci, thanks for sharing this post. For some reason, I thought that vertigo and dizziness are the same things. I guess I’ve been wrong. I appreciate this post a lot. As always, I learned a lot from you.

    I like how you have structured your post and have given various ways and means to ease and prevent both vertigo and dizziness. I too suffer from these two sometimes. But not that often. Nonetheless, it’s good to know how to approach these conditions and prevent them

    Thanks a lot, once again, and keep up the good work!

    Reply
  8. Hi Ceci,

    Such a great article. Thank you. Very thorough. My partner suffers from vertigo and I can only imagine how horrible it would be. She takes a pill that helps, Stemitol I think its called.

    She had an episode recently that lasted a few days. really knocks her around. I will pass on your article. Is there anything you recommend to help once she wakes up with it? Many thanks,

    Kev

    Reply
    • Kevin,
      I totally empathize with your partner as I am an occasional sufferer myself.I however do not take any medication for it. Just lying down and taking a short nap usually helps it subside.

      Ceci

      Reply

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